托福写作常见标点符号错误 别把一分半分不当回事~

2018-03-28  阅读: 184

(1) 顿号、书名号、句号、省略号错误。比较中英文标点符号可见,英文标点中没有中文形式的顿号、书名号、句号和省略号。而这四种标点符号成了大学英语写作中“借鉴频率较高的符号。

  如:

  〔错误〕1. While she is reading《Gone With the Wind》, I am cooking。

  〔错误〕2. My sister bought a lot of fruits for me , such as banana 、orange 、apple and pear.

  英文中的印刷体用斜体字表示书籍、报刊、戏剧、电影、绘画作品等的名称,在书写体或打字机打的文本中用字下线表示斜体字;英文常用逗号来代替冒号;而句号是用实心小黑点表示。

  故以上两句应改为:

  〔修改〕1. While she is reading Gone With the Wind , I am cooking.

  或While she is reading Gone With the Wind , I am cooking.

  〔修改〕2. My sister bought a lot of fruits for me , such as banana , orange , apple and pear.

英文中的省略号其实是三个句号的并列,许多学生由于受中文影响常错误地把英文省略号写成六点。

  (2) 冒号错误。冒号是中英文兼有的标点符号。在汉语中,冒号是表示提示性话语之后的停顿,常用在“说、道、讲、问、唱、回答、喊、吼”等动词的后边,以标明下面的话是谁说的。

  此用法影响下列英文句子标点:

  〔错误〕3. I thought to myself :“What kind of trap is she laying ?”

  〔错误〕4. He asked :“Where are you from ?”

  以上两例中的冒号在英文中需用逗点表示。汉语中的冒号还可用在“如次“如下“例如“像等引起下文的提示语后边。在英文表达中,“for example”(例如) 一类的词后常用逗点代替冒号。

  〔错误〕5. Good manners can be seen in everyday life. For example : a person with good manners is kind and helpful to others.

〔修改〕5. Good manners can be seen in everyday life. For example , a person with good manners is kind and helpful to others.

  (3) 破折号错误。汉语中的破折号标明行文中解释说明的部分,而英文同位语也具有同等说明的功能,故英文写作中用破折号连接同位语成份的错误也屡见不鲜。如:

  〔错误〕6. We are studying and living at the famous university — Beijing University.

  〔修改〕6. We are studying and living at the famous university , Beijing University.

对于同位语,英语一般使用逗点而不用破折号。英文中破折号的用法远没有中文的丰富。


与语法知识有关的标点错误

  (1) 把非限制性定语从句(non -restrictive attributive clause) 理解成限制性定语从句(restrictive attributive clause) 而忽略用逗点。如:

  〔错误〕7. We were led into a nearest fabric shop that was divided into two parts.

  从句意来看,上句是一个非限制性定语从句,故应在shop 后加逗点,把that 相应改成which 即:

〔修改〕7. We were led into a nearest fabric shop , which was divided into two parts.

  (2) 不论状语从句在整个句子中处于何种位置,一概以逗点隔开。

  〔错误〕8. We will go there , if it is fine tomorrow.

  状语从句可置于句首或句末。置于句首时,一般要用标点隔开;而置于句末时,则无需与主句隔开,故 以上句子应改为:

〔修改〕8. If it is fine tomorrow , we will go there. 或We will go there if it is fine tomorrow.

  (3) 在疑问句形式的陈述句后使用问号。

  〔错误〕9. What fun we girls could expect , to stay in the same class , studying for four long years with them ?I wondered.

  〔修改〕9. What fun could we girls expect , to stay in the same class , studying for four long years with them , I wondered.

英语疑问除可用问号来表达外,尚可用词序加以表达。故上例的疑问可用逗点表示。

  (4) 误把however ,therefore , because , thus 等起联系作用的副词当成并列连词,导致写作中的逗号粘连(comma splice) 错误。

  〔错误〕10. She thought what the teacher pointed out was right , however , she didn’t care for that .

  两个完整的句子或两个并列句之间不能一概用逗点点开, 可用句号、分号或在逗点后加并列连词(and , but , or , for , so , nor , yet) 等方法修改。

  故上例可改为:

〔修改〕10. She thought what the teacher pointed out was right . However , she didn’t care for that .或She thought what the teacher pointed out was right ; however , she didn’t care for that .或She thought what the teacher pointed out was right , but she didn’t care for that .

  (5) 与comma splice 相映成趣的是,许多学生作文时,极少考虑句子间的逻辑关系,一个逗点连首尾,导致大量熔句(fused sentence) 的堆砌。例如:

  〔错误〕11. Young men like blue jeans they wear them all the time.

  〔修改〕11. Young men like blue jeans ; they wear them all the time.

  或Young men like blue jeans. They wear them all the time.

  或Young men like blue jeans , and they wear them all the time.

  或Young men like blue jeans ; they wear them all the time.

或Since young men like blue jeans , they wear them all the time.

  (6) 两个并列的形容词间以and 代替逗点。

  〔错误〕12. Through the window , in front of me were large green fields which reminded me of the small clearing where I spent my lonely and hard childhood.

  现代英语表达一般在两个形容词中间不使用and , 而是用逗点分隔。

  〔修改〕12. Through the window , in front of me were large green fields which reminded me of the small clearing where I spent my lonely , hard childhood

  因语体错位而造成的标点错误。英文写作是一种书面语的输出。其书面语体的特征要求其与口头语相区别。口语中存在的大量缩约 (contraction) 在书面语体中应尽量避免。而许多学生在书面作文中大量使用省字号(’),几乎1/ 3 左右的作文在文体上存在漏洞,现代英语的发展对此却难以容忍。如:

  1. I’d like to share my joys with you. ( I would like to)

  2. You can’t behave like that . (You cannot)

3. There’re so many splendid toys for me to select . (There are)


其他错误

  (1) 引号错误。

  〔错误〕13.“No pain, no gain. ”As the saying goes.

  〔修改〕13. As the saying goes, “No pain, no gain. ”

  英文中短小的引语与作者提示“某某说之类的词语之间用逗点隔开,置于引号内。不能省略提示语“某某说之类而直接引用。

  〔错误〕14. Glancing through the essay entitled“Why Not More? ”, Dr. Jefferson frowned thoughtfully.

  〔修改〕14. Glancing through the essay entitled“Why Not More ?,”Dr. Jefferson frowned thoughtfully.

许多学生对诸如上例引号边的标点位置含糊,不清楚以下常用法:句号和逗号必须置于引号之内;冒号和分号必须置于引号之外;如果所引内容本身是疑问句或感叹句,问号和感叹号一般放在引号之内,否则,问号和感叹号则放在引号之外。

(2)日-月-年次序的日期中的逗号错误。英语日期的表达可以用月-日-年的次序和日-月-年的次序,日和年之间加逗号而月和年之间习惯上不加逗号。例如: 误把“13 August 2002”写成“13 August , 2002”。

  (3) 在部分副词如perhaps, so 后加逗号。如:

  〔错误〕15. Perhaps, I would not have such a good chance again.

  〔错误〕15. So, they keep in touch with each other merely by writing letters and phoning now.

以上两句的修改方法是把句中的逗号去掉。

  (4) 连接号(hyphen) 错误。许多英语习作者往往随意用连接号派生单词,如把“boyfriend”写成“boy-friend”; “middle school”写成“middle-school”。在行末单词分行时,连接号使用错误更多。与之相反,若把本应有的连接号粗心删去, 其单词含义可能会大相径庭。

  如有一年美国政府在一份贸易清单上列举了一些免税进口的物品,其中有一种是foreign fruit—plants(外国果树苗),后来由于打字员的疏忽,漏打连接号使其成了foreign fruit, plants(外国水果、树苗),结果导致第二年大量的水果如桔子、葡萄等从世界各地免税涌入美国市场从而使美国政府当年损失约200多万美元。