【雅思干货】阅读Heading题觉得很难?换个思路试试

2018-08-06  阅读: 384

在历年的雅思阅读考试中,标题配对题对很多考生来说是很大的难题。对于基础相对薄弱的考生,甚至会错一半甚至三分之二的题目。

Heading题觉得很难?经常一错错一堆....其实,很大原因是因为你做题的思路不对,有时候就是换个思路,在阅读能力不提高的情况下,分数会有很快的上升。

01题型解析

题型描述

list of headings的题目通常出现在文章的前面,通常是一个方框里罗列出一系列的小标题,方框下面给出考生需要为其选择标题的段落号。

方框中的标题数目往往要多于指定的段落数目,也就是说有的段落可能有好几个标题,但考生需要为每个指定段落选择最合适的标题。

题型透視

题目中所给的小标题实际上都是对段落大意中的总结和概括,通常的形式是以主题词为中心的名词短语,因而这类题目实际上是考查考生找段落大意的能力。

02 解题步骤

Step1:

划去已选标题,开始阅读文章中与题目相照应的第一个段落或部分,阅读时跳过已选题目的段落。

Step2:

找出第一个段落的主题句(比较概括性的句子),跳读文中的例子、数据等一些具体细节。

注意转折词后的句子,注意阅读文章中的首、尾句!

Step3:

提炼主题句的主题词,并想一下主题词的其他同义表达,然后回到题目中寻找出现主题词或主题词的近义表达的标题

Step4:

对于确定的段落标题,选定并在标题框将其划去,以便不断缩小题目选择范围;

对于难以确定题目的段落,可以留到最后再做,注意排除题目中没有出现相关信息的标题和包含段落中细节内容的标题。

03 技巧点拨

A威学一百雅思教研组方法之——首尾句/转折词

雅思阅读文章大部分为说明文,整篇及段落的结构大都比较有规律,多数为“总-分-总”式写法,因此首尾句非常重要,可以让大家大致了解主旨内容。其次,转折词处一般是作者表达主要观点的地方,所以也很重要。

例: 剑六文章“The Advantages of Public Transport”

In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work.

首句讲的是上班时间长短的问题,出现了关键词travel times to work

Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination.

However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.

最后一句话讲的是上班时间变长了,关键词commuting times因此正确的选项increases in travelling time.

It was once assumed that improvements in telecommunications would lead to more dispersal in the population as people were no longer forced into cities.

第一句话是telecommunications对人口分布的影响,但是第二句转折了,所以要看however后面的内容。

However, the ISTP team's research demonstrates that the population and job density of cities rose or remained constant in the 1980s after decades of decline.

The explanation for this seems to be that it is valuable to place people working in related fields together.

'The new world will largely depend on human creativity, and creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face.'

主旨句是倒数两句:it is valuable to place people working in related fields together, 所以答案应该是The benefits of working together in cities

威学一百雅思教育组提示:一定要看转折处,首尾句有一定的迷惑性。

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B威学一百雅思教研组方法之——逻辑

在雅思阅读的特点是段落在遣词造句方面非常有逻辑,如果我们能搞懂句与句的逻辑关系,那整段的主旨就很明显了。特别是对于难度较大、仅靠首尾句无法判断甚至选错选项的题目,巧用句与句之间的逻辑关系,就变得特别重要。

Eg: 剑九文章“Is anybody out there?”

Ever when we make these assumptions, our understanding of other life forms is still severely limited.

首句主要意思为人类对于其他生命了解还非常有限,如果只看首句,很容易选择干扰项Knowledge of extra-terrestrial intelligence

We do not even know, for example, how many stars have planets, and we certainly do not know how likely it is that life will arise naturally, given the right conditions.

句与句之间的关系:第二句话是for example, 是对首句举例子,起支持作用的,因此可忽略,因为没有出现重大意思改变。

However, when we look at the 100 billion stars in our galaxy (the Milky Way), and 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe, it seems inconceivable that at least one of these planets does not have a life form on it;

第三句话转折,通过分析长难句得到主句:it seems inconceivable that at least one of these plants does have a life form on it,讲其他星球存在生命的可能性。

in fact, the best educated guess we can make, using the little that we do know about the conditions for carbon-based life, leads us to estimate that perhaps one in 100,000 stars might have a life-bearing planet orbiting it.

后面in fact表示递进关系,可以忽略。最后一句话容易让大家选择干扰项vast distances to Earth’s closest neighbors。

通过浏览原文每句话的大意,以及句与句之间的关系,将一篇难度较大、篇幅较长的段落缩成两个大意思,即“知之甚少”和“生命存在可能性”。

又因为however后面比较重要,因此正确选项为like lihood of life on other planets。

Heading的解题,很多时候首尾句出现的关键词会成为干扰项,只看转折词并不能准确判断上下文讨论的内容。

因此最好的方法是每句都看,然后分析句与句之间的关系,结合转折处。

如果某一句是上一句的并列、举例、递进等平行关系,可忽略不计;如果是重大意思转折处,要仔细看。

在最短的时间内浏览了全段,又能搞清楚句与句之间的关系从而总结出主要内容,保证heading题的正确率。